This manual promotes precise, intuitive bending that work with any biologically compatible wire. The essential components and techniques of customized wire bending are detailed step-by-step, including trimming of casts; selection and proper manipulation of pliers; the first-order bends (in or out), second-order bends (up or down), and third-order bends (torque); and optimal methods of adjustment to be used during orthodontic treatment. In addition, the author elucidates the “fourth-order bend,” which is the understanding of how to use a wire effectively to apply orthodontic force to a patient over time. Technical images and case presentations illustrate each step of the process to ensure maximum comprehension. A must-have guide for orthodontic residents and practitioners alike.
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